Availability of wild ungulates (mainly roe deer) directly affects the effectiveness of hunting, thereby affecting the survival of young and adult individuals.
Poor management of wild ungulates population is another threat to lynx population in Poland. In the Bialowieża Forest, too intensive hunting of roe deer and red deer in the years 1992-1996 (as part of a nationwide reduction in deer population) resulted in an almost fivefold decrease of roe deer population densities (from approx. 5 to 1 individuals / km2 ), which caused a sharp reduction in the reproductive success of lynx, and consequently, its population decline by approx. 40%. Despite the legal obligation in Poland no environmental impact assessment for plans on hunting has been conducted to date, even if they concern sigifficant reduction of population that provides food base for carnivores in Natura 2000 sites. It is also widely known that hunting plans are based on incorrect estimates of the numbers of wild ungulates.